Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy: Comparison of the emerging and traditional technologies
S. J. Kazempour, M. Parsa Moghaddam, M. Haghifam, G.R. Yousefi, “Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy: Comparison of the emerging and traditional technologies”, Elsevier, Renewable Energy Journal, Volume 34, Issue 12, December 2009, pp. 2630-2639.
Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively.
Electric energy storage (EES); NaS battery; Pumped-storage; Day-Ahead (DA) market; Self-Scheduling (SS); Internal rate of return (IRR)